A Hypocrene spring happens when high evaporation and low discharge combine leaving no surface flow.
A desert marsh meant survival in arid country. Settlers drained 95% of them by the 20th century.
11,000 year-old collapsed mound spring with highest number of unique species in North America has a flow of 1.5 million gallons of water daily.
Unique variations of species from thousands years ago endure in isolated remaining desert marshes.
Pristine springs actively managed for their bio-diversity are protected from heavy tourist visitation by their location on a military base.
Almost completely dry during a drought year, a wetland marsh survives at the bottom of Arizona's largest natural lake.
Red ammonium phosphate fire retardant can be toxic to plant and animal life when dumped into water.
Ice melt from the last ice age supports descendants of ancient Pupfish who have a tenuous hold on survival.
Western immigrants journeyed from spring to spring. Anecdotal evidence exists of declining flow since 1979 measurements.
Dried former spring shared an aquifer with a Coal Company who extracted 3 million gallons of water daily for 40 years.
In 1968 the last oasis in the Mojave desert was saved from becoming a 34,000 unit development.
A perennial spring capped and covered with concrete block used for water local water supply.
Successive alterations reduced spring flow from 500 to 50 gallons per minute. Drought and increasing development keep the water table low.
A clamor for bottled 'spring' water, agriculture and ranching put increased demands on spring aquifers.
Captured and piped underground this spring shares its water with a subdivision in Fort Valley, AZ
Ponded for water storage in dry times, this location is culturally significant to the Navajo.
A desert spring can be the only water for miles. Piping forhuman need disrupts springs ecosystems.
Unregulated water quality and potential for uranium contamination from former open pit mines impacts springs.
Heavily manipulated hillslope spring piped into storage tank sits at the base of Sierra Sinagua - mountain without water.
Ranchers lease public lands for their cattle who trample springs and foul the water.